Based on federal income guidelines, over 14 million children are living in poverty in the United States (Hutchison, 2011). The threats of poverty include: increased risk for poor health and developmental outcomes, lower vaccination rates, higher rates of severe chronic diseases and various circumstances that require medical attention and higher rates of cognitive behavioral challenges (Kaminski, & et. al. 2013). The affiliation between poverty and child development has been documented to impact academic performance in children as young as two years old (Engle & Black, 2008). The purpose of this thesis is to describe the effects of poverty and related risk factors on school readiness and academic achievement in early childhood and childhood.