Alcohol and substance abuse treatment has increased as a method to help decrease recidivism among inmates, especially in county jails and state correctional facilities. The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether or not providing drug treatment in state correctional facilities is decreasing the likelihood of inmates returning to incarceration after being released. To explore this subject, it is essential to consider the theory and perspectives behind rehabilitation and addiction, human development and cultural differences between incarcerated individuals. Additionally, looking at the intentions of the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program and considering how policies affect the transition of individuals back into communities becomes essential. Finally, this paper considers the ethics and social and economic justice considerations behind rehabilitation in prisons from a social work perspective. This paper will close with intervention recommendations and considerations for future practice in this ever-growing field.