Women are significantly underrepresented in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields at the college and professional levels. Starting in early education and continuing through graduate school, women are subtly and explicitly pushed out of STEM fields. Women experience a "chilly climate" when they do break into these male-dominated fields and their attrition rates are much higher than men further compounding the problem. Mentoring has been shown to have a major impact on student satisfaction, success and retention. This literature review examines how women perceive their academic experience in the STEM fields, the impact of mentoring in STEM and other fields, and the effect of mentoring on retention. Implications for institutions are also examined.