Maintaining adherence to an antiretroviral medication regimen is essential to the overall health and wellbeing for individuals living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Additionally, adherence to an antiretroviral medication regimen increases the longevity of life, deters the development of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and decreases the possibility of HIV transmission. This quantatative study seeks to identify biological, psychological, social, and spiritual risk and protective factors that significantly influence adherence to antiretroviral medications in individuals living with HIV/AIDS. The cross-sectional study is conducted with in an agency provides comprehensive care specifically to individuals living with HIV. A convenience sampling method is being utilized to obtain a targeted sample size of 30 to 50 participants. Data collection will occur over the course of a month. A survey cointaining Likert scales and closed ended questions is used to measure social support, spiritual wellbeing, degree of religious affiliation, mental illness, self-esteem, degree of adherence to antiretroviral medication regimen, acceptance of HIV diagnosis, demographic information, and perceived discrimination. Based on previous literature, it is expected that biological, psychological, social, and spiritual protective factors are associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral medications, whereas biological, psychological, social, and spiritual risk factors will be associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral medications. Results of this study will enable practitioners to identify barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence among individuals living with HIV. Identification of these barriers can enable practitioners to effectively and efficiently provide supportive interventions.