Synthesis and Characterization of Iodine laden Graphene Nano Platelets via reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Hydrogen Iodide
Sundararaj, Joe Livingston
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This research thesis proposes a novel method for the synthesis, analysis and characterization of Iodinated X-Ray contrast agents using Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) for Computed Tomographic Imaging. Graphene Oxide was synthesized using the Hummers Method of Oxidation  through oxidative treatment of Graphite with Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4). The resulting Graphene Oxide was chemically reduced using varying concentrations of Hydrogen Iodide or Hydroiodic acid (HI), rather than the conventionally used highly toxic Hydrazine Hydrate (N2H4) to strip off the oxygen functionalities. In the process of chemical reduction using Hydrogen Iodide, we hypothesized that this would result in the incorporation of Iodine into the Graphitic structure. Raman Spectroscopy, EDS along with XRD analysis provided evidence for the reduction of GO. Raman spectra for reduced GNPs showed an increase in ID/IG ratio from that of graphene oxide and also a peak at 154cm-1 attributed to I5-. EDS/EDX spectra for HI reduced GO showed a peak at X-ray energy level 3.94KeV characteristic of Iodine. Further analysis using Ion-Selective Electrode measurements confirmed the presence of about 10% Iodine in the Hydroiodic acid reduced samples. SEM and TEM images showed a brief morphology of the Graphene Nanoplatelets. Finally, to elucidate the possibility of Iodinated GNPs to be developed into potential CT contrast agents in the near or far future, CT Phantoms of Iodine loaded GNPs at a concentration of 40mg/ml in water showed excellent contrast density with water and dilute Hydroiodic acid as controls.