Romania today is a culture that presents many paradoxes. It struggles to fix its identity and to envision a future that exists after the fall of Communism. Stripped of their theatrical past, Romanian playwrights have created a new theatrical landscape for their plays to exist in. They are fighters, speaking out about what is happening in their country, and it is the intention of this thesis to illuminate what these playwrights see that we may not. This thesis explores modern Romanian plays (defined herein as plays that are written in or after the year 2000), within the context of Romanian history, and identifies prevalent themes that surface in these works. It uses theatrical texts to explore Romania's current transition period, and to examine issues of identity and the cultural anxieties that plague both Romanian and American societies today.