This dissertation is a theoretical reappraisal of G¢ngora's popular verse which entails a profound questioning of the very foundations of the Spanish `Baroque' as an epistemological framework. It stems from a basic paradox: how can the Baroque, produced by an official, organic ideology, be understood from the standpoint of the vast popular culture that it ultimately seems to create? This question becomes more relevant. and even more acutely intriguing. if we consider that an important number of the canonic and non-canonic greatest works of the period (from the Quixote to G¢ngora's F bula de P¡ramo y Tisbe, going through the Picaresque novel) pertain to the field of popular culture. My work aims at proving that this prominent streak of literary grotesque is not only relevant but indeed native to the cultural logic of the Spanish Baroque, which can be redefined in terms of a more fluid relation between the official and the popular, in order to finally debunk the fallacy of the two G¢ngoras. Some of the issues addressed in this dissertation are: the reasons for literary obscurity; the political dimensions of ideological contradiction; the material constitution. if not production. of typically baroque rhetorical devices (hyperbaton, litote, catachresis); and last, but not least, the relation between the social body of the Spanish Absolutist State and G¢ngora's own body grotesque.