In this dissertation we present a compiler-assisted execution-based software modelchecking method targeting all languages that are acceptable by the compiler. We treatthe intermediate representation of the program under compilation as a language andinterpret it using a customized virtual machine. Our model checkers are based on thisintermediate representation level virtual machine and have full access to its states. Weimplemented two model checkers: a stateless Monte Carlo model checker GMC2 anda bounded concrete-symbolic model checker using the dynamic path reduction algorithmfor reachability problems of linear C programs.We also introduce the new technique of Software Monitoring with Controllable Over-head (SMCO). SMCO is formally grounded in control theory, in particular, the supervi-sory control of discrete event systems. Overhead is controlled by dynamically disablingevent interrupts, but such interrupts are disabled for as short a time as possible so thatthe total number of events monitored, under the constraint of a user-supplied targetoverhead, is maximized.We have implemented SMCO using a technique we call Compiler-Assisted Instrumen-tation (CAI). Benchmark shows that SMCO successfully controls overhead across a widerange of target-overhead levels. Moreover, its accuracy monotonically increases with thetarget overhead, and it can be conﬁgured to distribute monitoring overhead fairly acrossmultiple instrumentation points.