ItemA Review of Thyroid Hormones and Graves’ Disease(2018-05) Andresen, Erik; Robertson, Mariah; Brabetz, BarbaraThere are two different types of thyroid hormones, T3 and T4. These two types mostly differ in their concentrations and potencies, with T3 being approx. 3x more potent than T4, and T4 being approx. 4x more prevalent in the bloodstream. T4 is transformed into the more active version, T3. Both of these hormones play major roles in the development, growth, metabolism, and physiological function in virtually all tissues. Graves’ Disease is an autoimmune disease that causes the thyroid gland to overproduce T3 and T4. The most obvious symptoms of Graves’ Disease include protruding eyes and a swollen neck. ItemDevelopment of high yield Switchgrass Cultivar by Agrobacterium-Mediated transformation with InsP-5-Ptase Gene(2018-05) Chang, Chen; Snare, Melissa; McMaster-Schuyler, Lynda, Dr.; Zeng, Peiyu, Dr.InsP-5-Ptase gene is involved in the phosphoinostide pathway which functions as a mechanism of drought response. The protein products of this gene hydrolyze soluble inositol phosphates terminating the signal of InsP3 triggered by abscisic acid, a chemical produced in large quantities during drought. Switchgrass is an important warm season grass in Northern America, often used in the production of biofuels. By manipulating the switchgrass genome, we can increase the yield of desired products, including ethanol. Introducing the InsP-5-Ptase gene into the callus will give the plants an ability to grow in arid soil, making it a very valuable biofuel crop. In this research, we are overexpressing drought tolerance gene coding InsP-5-Ptase in switchgrass plants by agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The binary vector pHL083 containing gene expression cassettes of InsP-5-Ptase and herbicide-resistant Bar gene. Transgenic herbicide resistant switchgrass plants have been obtained. Further molecular, physiological and progeny analysis will be conducted. ItemSoybean Transformation with Cysteine Protease Inhibitor (CPI1) Gene for Resistance and Tolerance(2018-05) Snare, Melissa; Cross, Janel; Zhou, Yeying; McMaster-Schuyler, Lynda, Dr.; Zeng, Peiyu, Dr.Soybeans (Glycine max) are one of the major agricultural important crops in the United States. These legumes have a variety of uses, including food and industrial applications. Soybean growth is susceptible to drought, pest infection, and bacterial disease. These conditions strain soybean growth worldwide, dampening the effect that soybeans have on the economic network. It has been reported that the introduction of an active Cysteine Protease Inhibitor gene (CPI1) originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, will enhance soybean disease resistance and drought tolerance. The CPI1 gene helps the soybean combat programed cell death, which occurs when soybeans are exposed to unfavorable conditions and stress. Protease enzymes, released during cell death, break down the proteins and peptides necessary for the cell to live. Therefore, with the introduction of the CPI1 gene into soybean DNA protease levels can be controlled to help overcome programmed cell death. This will produce a heartier soybean that will more readily survive in a variety of adverse environmental conditions. The transgenic soybeans overexpressing CPI1 genes will grow transgenic soybeans that will promote soybean growth and its role in the economy.  ItemPond Culture of the Endangered Pugnose Shiner (Notropis anogenus)(2018-05) Robbins, Brielle; Foster, John R.; Lehman, Brent C.; Ratchford, Jason M.; Soukup, Michael W. ItemDevelopment of Tissue Culture System for Transformation System in Hops (Humulus lupulus)(2018-05) Lu, Hanwang; Cao, Lei; Zhao, Yifeng; Zeng, Peiyu, Dr.; McMaster-Schuyler, Lynda, Dr.Hop (Humulus lupulus) is widely used in the brewing industry because the female flower improves the aroma and flavor of beer. It is challenging to cultivate hops in New York state since the hop is very sensitive to fungi and bacteria. Agene which could confer fungus resistance to hops would be useful. The goal of our project is to develop a tissue culture protocol which can be used to grow single cell hops capable of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We have established a tissue culture system for regeneration by using MS-B5 medium supplemented with 1.43µM IAA and 9.08µM TDZ, resulting in successful shoot induction. Small (0.5cm) shoots and green calli induced from shoot internodes in vitro have resulted in transplantable Hop.