State University College at Cortland

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    Frantz Fanon's Critique of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Corporeal Schema
    (2016) Pish, Mackenzie; Karkov, Nikolay
    There is something quite natural in the way a young woman ties up her hair. She closes her eyes. With her right hand, she reaches for her hair tie. She tilts her head backward. Grabbing from the bottommost layer, she collects her beauty, pulling it upward and together. She shifts the tie: from her right wrist to the fingers in her left hand and then, after a simple twist, back to the right hand. Her hair is removed from her shoulders. She opens her eyes. Now, ask any woman to describe, without acting out the process, the sequence of motions needed to complete this task. Maurice Merleau-Ponty, in his Phenomenology of Perception, argues that this type of body movement is made possible due to a person's representation of their body parts to space, which he refers to as a body schema. In addition to the body schema, Merleau-Ponty insists that all human beings have a corporeal schema, which determines how a person is able to posture and conduct themselves in accordance to the world and objects within it. It is not a series of calculations that allows for the woman to tie up her hair. She simply knows where her hair tie is and therefore she knows where her hair and her arms are. There is no need for measurement or precise dimensions; the body instead moves freely. There is a "harmony between what we aim at and what is given, between the intention and the performance - and the body is our anchorage in the world" (Merleau-Ponty, 144). But this anchor does not hold us in position. It simply secures belonging. Upon movement the body establishes its own space in the world, and this is not static, occupied space. By this understanding, a person is able to not only adapt to their surroundings, but also change them [by simply changing their position]. It is Merleau-Ponty's argument that this corporeal schema is a fundamental part of human biology and therefore cannot be hindered by society. It is Franz Fanon's argument that Merleau-Ponty failed to consider the black experience.
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    Deafness: Difference or Disability?
    (2016) Thompson, Kaitlyn; Vittoria, Anne K.
    Can education change the view of deafness as a disability? As a predominantly 'hearing' society, many individuals believe that deafness is a form of disability. Two questions arise. First, to what extent are persons in our society educating themselves about the social experience and physical conditions of "non-hearing" persons? Second, can educational programs, specifically academic courses on deaf culture and history, help to change people's perspective of physical difference as disability? In order to specifically address these questions in a small study, I used a qualitative science approach using focus groups and participant observation. First, I conducted focus groups in beginner American Sign Language classes (ASL 101) in a college in New York state, and second, I conducted focus groups with intermediate American Sign Language classes (ASL 201). The Interview Guide for the focus groups concentrated on each individual's beliefs, group discussion on deafness, as well as if and how American Sign Language classes may have changed their views. In my analysis, I discuss both students' original perspectives as well as their views after taking American Sign Language classes. I wanted to understand in more depth whether or not students' views had changed and how through my interpretation of their narrative responses. In my paper I discuss the consequences of their perspectives and the implications for further study. An additional piece of my research was to understand any social stigma (from the standpoint of social theorist Erving Goffman) as it is manifested toward persons obviously identified as hearing impaired through the use of a hearing aid. For this part of the study I used myself as both participant and object of analysis. I wear hearing aid ear hooks for a period of time and observe other's behavior toward me. My interpretations are presented in the paper. My goal is for my presentation to have an impact on each individual's view of deafness as a disability.
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    The Indirect Detection of Liquid Water in Extrasolar Protoplanetary Disks
    (2016) Terzolo, Anthony J.; Fogerty, Shane; Morris, Melissa A.; Morris, Melissa
    Phyllosilicates are hydrous minerals that form through the interaction of rock and liquid water. Phyllosilicates are found in abundance in certain types of meteorites originating from the asteroid belt, providing evidence for liquid water in the early Solar System. Most phyllosilicates show a distinct emission in the mid-infrared (MIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be detected in extrasolar disks [1]. We have examined the observed spectra of several candidate extrasolar planetary systems, and have found the signature of phyllosilicates in the extrasolar disk of 1RXS J161410.6-230542. The detection of phyllosilicates in this disk would indicate the presence of liquid water and suggest a similarity to our own Solar System. We present the comparison of our model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the protoplanetary disk 1RXS J1614.6-2320542 to observations obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope.
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    Evaluating movement analysis skills through a series of mastery-learning online modules: A pilot study
    (2016) Hampton, Kayla; Walker, Renee; Vaughan, Lauren; Baert, Helena; Madden, Matthew; True, Larissa
    Physical education teachers are in the business of promoting physical literacy and developing competent movers. In order to accomplish this goal, pre-service teachers must be able to observe, assess, analyze and correct gross motor skills effectively. While PE majors in the SUNY Cortland program complete a motor development course and field experience, data shows that motor skill analysis proves to be a challenge over the other pedagogical competencies. Consequently, pre-service teachers could benefit from a supplement where they are provided with more practice in skill analysis. Mastery-based learning, also called competency-based learning is based on an approach developed by educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom, a model of instruction aimed to individualize learning where students progress through an online supplement based on their own progression through the competencies. This type of instruction leads to more flexibility for the learner and the ability to slow down or accelerate their learning depending on their own learning needs. Consequently, mastery-based learning modules ensure the flexibility to instruct many different learners at their own pace while expecting the same competency level. The main objective is to analyze the effects of an online supplement that assesses the movement analysis abilities of teacher candidates at various stages within the physical education program at SUNY Cortland. The online supplement included a pre and post-test as well as three modules detailing three gross motor skills specifically; horizontal jumping, ball rolling, and dynamic balance. A pilot course which consisted of both a control group and experimental group was developed with physical education teacher candidates from four courses. The control group completed a pre and post-assessment while the experimental group completed a pre-test, three competency-based training modules analyzing gross motors skills and a post-test. The study is experimental, evaluative, and quantitative in nature. The poster presentation will display preliminary data comparing the pre and post test results from the control group to the experimental group.
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    Environmental Enrichment Reduces Stress-Induced Relapse Over Protracted Withdrawal Periods in Ethanol Taking Rats
    (2016) Schrader, Makenzie; Shaw, Amanda; Toal, Elizabeth Claire; Peck, Dr., Joshua Alan; Peck, Dr., Joshua Alan
    Although medications for alcohol addiction (e.g., acamprosate and disulfiram) show promise compared to no treatment in reducing alcohol use, it continues to fall short of being highly effective when the goal is long-term abstinence and relapse prevention. Therefore, strategies that prolong alcohol abstinence should be the primary focus of alcohol treatment research. One potential treatment strategy that could help sustain long-term alcohol abstinence is Environmental Enrichment (EE). Research has found that when stimulation or reward (EE) is derived from a source other than the drug itself, there is a reduction in the rewarding effects of the drug(s), thereby sustaining abstinence. Thus, the current studies examined if the implementation of environmental enrichment after alcohol self-administration training (a fade-in series of 2%, then 4%, and then 6% ethanol) will reduce or eliminate continued alcohol consumption in rats (abstinence) and protect against stress-induced relapse. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that EE rats will consume significantly less ethanol after different protracted abstinence periods (7 and 30 days) when compared to non-enriched (NEE) rats. In Experiment 2, we tested the hypothesis that EE will significantly reduce stress-induced ethanol consumption (relapse) after different periods of abstinence (7 and 30 days) compared to NEE rats. In Experiment 1, we found that EE significantly reduced alcohol consumption in both protracted periods of abstinence (7 and 30 days) when compared to NEE rats. In Experiment 2, we also found that EE significantly reduced ethanol consumption during the 1-hr stress-induced relapse test. Collectively, the results suggest that EE may be a promising path to pursue as a treatment strategy for long-term abstinence and emphasizes the importance of enriched life conditions in facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to alcohol addiction.