Buffalo State College

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    Sex Differences in Adolescent Substance Use Motives and the Prediction of Related Problems
    (2016) Hoffman, Brandi; MacLean, Michael; MacLean, Michael
    Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of substance use. There is also a dearth of indicated prevention programs meant to identify and address the early warning signs of substance misuse in adolescents. Research has shown that male and female adolescents differ in their motives for use, but little research indicates how predictive each motive is of related problems and how that might differ between the sexes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate sex differences in alcohol and marijuana use motives and how they predict related problems in adolescents. Methods: Participants were 1,064 youths (ages 13-22, mean = 18) who participated in an indicated prevention program in Buffalo, New York called Focus on Consequences for Adolescents (FOCA). FOCA uses a motivational-based interviewing approach to service youths referred by local courts, schools, mental health professionals or parents for substance-related problems. Motives for use were measured with the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) and the Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (MMQ). Related problems were measured with Rutgers Alcohol Problem Inventory (RAPI) and the Shortened Inventory of Problems-Drugs (SIP-D) Results: Independent sample t-tests revealed that female adolescents reported significantly higher rates of coping motives and conformity motives for alcohol use (t = 3.76, p < .001; t = 1.79, p < .05 respectively) and marijuana use (t = 3.76, p < .001; t = 1.85, p < .01 respectively). A mediational path analysis was then run using structural equation modeling to assess how the motives were related to alcohol and marijuana use and their related problems and to test whether the paths were significantly different between the sexes. The path analysis revealed that coping motives were the strongest predictor of related problems for each sex and that such motives were significantly stronger predictors of problems for girls than boys. Discussion: The results indicate that female adolescents are much more likely to use alcohol and marijuana as a means of coping with negative affect and that such motives are much more closely tied to experiencing related problems than they are for boys. This suggests that indicated prevention programs could be tailored to individual motives for use and that addressing alternative means of coping with negative affect may be especially important for girls.
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    Best Practices of Classroom Management in a PDS School
    (2016) Ware, Brianna; Del Prado, Pixitia
    Teachers have the responsibility of teaching a high level of content and getting students to comprehend the material within a short timeframe. If a teacher is unable to successfully manage his/her classroom, then the above goal nearly becomes impossible. Throughout this study I took the time to explore best practices for classroom management in a PDS school, so that I can share my findings with future teachers and potentially shed some light on alternative methods for current teachers.
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    Growth and Optical Characteristics of YbFe2O4 Thin Films
    (2016) Brzyski, Kelly; Pascolini, Michelle; Rai, Ram
    Our research was focused on studying the growth and optical characteristics of YbFe2O4 thin films. YbFe2O4 (YbFO) samples were prepared by a solid state reaction. The stoichiometric proportion of Yb2O3, FeO, and Fe2O3 powders were mixed and ground using a mortar and pestle, then pressed into pellets of about 3g and 0.5 inch diameter each using a hydraulic press. The pellets were then sintered in the furnace at 1000 ºC for 12 hours. After sintering, the pellets were ground, pressed and sintered for a second and sometimes third time. To make the YbFO thin films, we used an electron beam deposition method. The pellets were placed into crucibles and the target pellet was heated by an electron beam for about an hour. The YbFO pellet slowly evaporates onto YSZ and sapphire substrates heated at 850 ºC until the desired thickness was reached. YbFO thin films were annealed for 3 hours at 600 ºC. Reflectance and transmittance versus wavelength (200 - 3000 nm) of YbFO thin films were measured at temperatures between 10 K and 400 K using spectrometers. The optical data of YbFO show several electronic peaks associated with the intra (Fe 3d to d) and inter (O 2p to Fe 3d, Yb 6s, and 5d) atomic electronic transitions. Moreover, the optical properties change as temperature changes, suggesting a strong temperature dependence.
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    To Live and Die in L.A.: Understanding Noir's Status as a Film Genre and the Differences Between Film Noir and Neo-Noir
    (2016) Rickard, Michael; Ali, Barish
    "To Live and Die in L.A.": Understanding Noir's Status as a Film Genre and the Differences between Film Noir and Neo-Noir. Primary Researcher: Michael Rickard Film critics are still divided on whether or not film noir is a genre or a style of film. Genre is a classification based on narrative structure while style is classified by filming techniques such as cinematography. Noir is defined both by its narrative and technical elements which makes categorizing it problematic. Even more confusion exists over the genre of neo-noir. This discussion is important to film studies because if neo-noir is not a genre, then noir may not be a genre either. It is also important in answering the question of whether film genres even exist. Although neo-noir proponents often argue that the neo-noir genre began with the film "Body Heat", there are still questions over what, if any, elements differentiate neo-noir from film noir. These questions can be answered with an examination of William Friedkin's 1984 film, "To Live and Die in L.A.", a true neo-noir film. The film contains noir stylistic elements such as rain, shadows, and symbols such as Venetian blinds. The film contains noir narrative elements such as fatal women and fatal men; and the city as spectacle, with Los Angeles seen as a corrupting labyrinth from which there is no escape. Friedkin inserts neo-noir narrative elements such as post-feminist characters and a renegade cop who skirts the law to enforce it. The film includes neo-noir technical elements such as the dynamic use of color and light. This combination of narrative and technical elements transform what could have been a traditional noir film into one of the best examples of neo-noir. This presentation will establish that noir is a genre, and that it continues today as neo-noir, a genre built on the foundation of noir, but with elements unique to itself. This presentation will incorporate specific scenes from the film, along with critical analysis of the film, and the neo-noir genre.
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    Mindfulness Shapes a Happier Life: The Importance of Positive Thinking and Confidence
    (2016) Maierdan, Aierfan; Sharma, Vaibhav; Yudess, Jo
    This research study presents how mindfulness thinking changes the way people perceive the world and helps them to enjoy their lives. In this research, data from surveying and interviewing people and data from previous scholarly studies in this field will be used. As a preliminary result, we have learned that a positive attitude plays a significant role in whether or not someone is able to overcome failure in life and focus on the happy side. By positive attitude, they can overcome more challenges and develop the confidence that nothing is impossible, breaking misconceptions of the word impossible. As a conclusion, by studying how their minds work, people can shape their thinking, train themselves to have a positive mental state and change how they perceive things, learning to enjoy their lives and getting the sense of being grateful for what they have instead of being stressed out with the challenges in front of them.